9.   Emotions

Table of Contents

Before reading this you might want to explore your own emotions.  One way to help a person do this is to study this web page:  Understand, Identify Release Your Emotions.  It was written by  Mary Kurus.  When you return to this page you can explore how you might want to classify your emotions.  

In a very simple way the left brain is very logical and linear and is always trying to figure out how the right brain sees the big picture and has more insight into emotions.  It is almost impossible to make emotions linear and mathematical.   But we can try or at least see how others have done.  It would be nice if we could make the emotions into some type of color wheel, and you could describe your feelings as a dash of this or that, or lots of this or that.  I wonder if there could be worked out an equation for feelings and emotions.

Later in this web page, I describe seven basic emotions that seem to cover all the many presented on this web page.

Language Confusing

Before we start, a word of warning.  We must go to meaning, not to the word.  Words are just pointers to things.  Often people use different words and argue about the words instead of asking for the definition of the words.

Emotions have all sorts of words used to describe them.  You can make up your own word combinations.  For example the word "love" can mean so many things.  We hear phrases such as: "You look lovely", "Make love, not war", "I love to cook", "I love you", "I love, love."  Also the word "feel" is used in various ways: "I felt my heart drop",  "I feel hurt", "I have no feeling at so ever", "My arm feels sore", or "I have so much feelings for you.

If we are to investigate emotions we have to include the observer.  If a person meditates or enjoys classical music, then there a higher vantage point to view one's emotion.  There is great joy being spiritual and in love with something above and beyond us.

 Emotions and feelings stem from two great sources, namely the body (sickness, tired, etc) and other people (love, hate, anger, etc).  Often people project "people feelings" on objects (e.g., I love apples).  

The Plutchik Model of Emotions

Before we continue, it would be best to consider Robert Plutchik's psychoevolutionary theory of emotion.  His theory is one of the most influential classification approaches for general emotional responses. He chose eight primary emotions - anger, fear, sadness, disgust, surprise, anticipation, trust, and joy. Plutchik proposed that these 'basic' emotions are biologically primitive and have evolved in order to increase the reproductive fitness of the animal. Plutchik argues for the primacy of these emotions by showing each to be the trigger of behaviour with high survival value, such as the way fear inspires the fight-or-flight response.  

Plutchik's theory of basic emotions applies to animals as well as to humans and has an  evolutionary history that helped oganisms deal with key survival issues.  Beyond the basic emotions there are combinations of emotions. Primary emotions can be conceptualized in terms of pairs of polar opposites. Each emotion can exist in varying degrees of intensity or levels of arousal.

There are other lists of emotions, some of which are listed below.

 

Various Lists of Emotions

Cartoonists are interested in spectrums of emotions to aid in their drawings.  This site has drawings of over 60 different emotions all neatly arranged.

Which emotions are basic and which are combinations of these?  As ever, theorists disagree.  Here are some examples:

Ortony and Turner (1990) collated a wide range of research on identification of basic emotions.
(Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/explanations/emotions/basic%20emotions.htm)

Theorist Basic Emotions
Plutchik Acceptance, anger, anticipation, disgust, joy, fear, sadness, surprise
Arnold Anger, aversion, courage, dejection, desire, despair, fear, hate, hope, love, sadness
Ekman, Friesen, and Ellsworth Anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, surprise
Frijda Desire, happiness, interest, surprise, wonder, sorrow
Gray Rage and terror, anxiety, joy
Izard Anger, contempt, disgust, distress, fear, guilt, interest, joy, shame, surprise
James Fear, grief, love, rage
McDougall Anger, disgust, elation, fear, subjection, tender-emotion, wonder
Mowrer Pain, pleasure
Oatley and Johnson-Laird Anger, disgust, anxiety, happiness, sadness
Panksepp Expectancy, fear, rage, panic
Tomkins Anger, interest, contempt, disgust, distress, fear, joy, shame, surprise
Watson Fear, love, rage
Weiner and Graham Happiness, sadness

 

Here is a another list of emotions as described in Parrot (2001), where emotions were categorised into a short tree structure.
(Retrieved from http://changingminds.org/explanations/emotions/basic%20emotions.htm)

 

Primary emotion

Secondary emotion

Tertiary emotions

Love Affection Adoration, affection, love, fondness, liking, attraction, caring, tenderness, compassion, sentimentality
Lust Arousal, desire, lust, passion, infatuation
Longing Longing
Joy Cheerfulness Amusement, bliss, cheerfulness, gaiety, glee, jolliness, joviality, joy, delight, enjoyment, gladness, happiness, jubilation, elation, satisfaction, ecstasy, euphoria
Zest Enthusiasm, zeal, zest, excitement, thrill, exhilaration
Contentment Contentment, pleasure
Pride Pride, triumph
Optimism Eagerness, hope, optimism
Enthrallment Enthrallment, rapture
Relief Relief
Surprise Surprise Amazement, surprise, astonishment
Anger Irritation Aggravation, irritation, agitation, annoyance, grouchiness, grumpiness
Exasperation Exasperation, frustration
Rage Anger, rage, outrage, fury, wrath, hostility, ferocity, bitterness, hate, loathing, scorn, spite, vengefulness, dislike, resentment
Disgust Disgust, revulsion, contempt
Envy Envy, jealousy
Torment Torment
Sadness Suffering Agony, suffering, hurt, anguish
Sadness Depression, despair, hopelessness, gloom, glumness, sadness, unhappiness, grief, sorrow, woe, misery, melancholy
Disappointment Dismay, disappointment, displeasure
Shame Guilt, shame, regret, remorse
Neglect Alienation, isolation, neglect, loneliness, rejection, homesickness, defeat, dejection, insecurity, embarrassment, humiliation, insult
Sympathy Pity, sympathy
Fear Horror Alarm, shock, fear, fright, horror, terror, panic, hysteria, mortification
Nervousness Anxiety, nervousness, tenseness, uneasiness, apprehension, worry, distress, dread

 

Clark Elliott, 1998, after Ortony, et al., 1988 listed these emotional categories:
(Retrieved from: http://condor.depaul.edu/elliott/emotion-table.html)

GROUP

SPECIFICATION

CATEGORY LABEL AND EMOTION TYPE

Well-Being appraisal of a situation as an event joy: pleased about an event
distress: displeased about an event
Fortunes-of-Others presumed value of a situation as an
event affecting another
happy-for: pleased about an event desirable for another
gloating: pleased about an event undesirable for another
resentment: displeased about an event desirable for another
jealousy*: resentment over a desired mutually exclusive goal
envy*: resentment over a desired non-exclusive goal
sorry-for: displeased about an event undesirable for another
Prospect-based appraisal of a situation as a prospective
event
hope: pleased about a prospective desirable event
fear: displeased about a prospective undesirable event
Confirmation appraisal of a situation as confirming
or disconfirming an expectation
satisfaction: pleased about a confirmed desirable event
relief: pleased about a disconfirmed undesirable event
fears-confirmed: displeased about a confirmed undesirable event
disappointment: displeased about a disconfirmed desirable event
Attribution appraisal of a situation as an accountable
act of some agent
pride: approving of one's own act
admiration: approving of another's act
shame: disapproving of one's own act
reproach: disapproving of another's act
Attraction appraisal of a situation as containing
an attractive or unattractive object
liking: finding an object appealing
disliking: finding an object unappealing
Well-being/
Attribution
compound emotions gratitude: admiration+joy
anger: reproach+distress
gratification: pride+joy
remorse: shame+distress
Attraction/
Attribution
compound emotion extensions love:admiration+liking
hate:reproach+disliking
*Non-symmetric additions necessary for some stories.

 

Hunter B. Shirley

Shirely (1983) grouped emotions into the following four categories as described in his book Mapping the Mind .

GENERAL
CLASS

BASIC
EMOTION

FRUSTRATED EMOTION

HOPELESS EMOTION

Unity Healthy Pride Shame Contempt
Mobility Desire Fear Anger
Affinity Affection Pathos Hauteur
Variety Curiosity Distraction Disdain

These classes correspond to four verbs::

  • I am - Unity - Healthy Pride -- assimilative self-awareness (we are joyous when we love ourselves)
  • I want - Mobility -Desire -- acquisitive movement (we are happy when we get stuff)
  • I love - Affinity -Human love and friendship -- herd sociability (we can be in love with another)
  • I wonder - Variety - Curiosity -- looking for something new, exploratory endeavors (we find love in discovery)

When one is frustrated the basic emotions change into frustrated emotions (towards the Neurotic State): 

  • Pride turns to Shame
  • Desire turns to Anger
  • Human love to Pathos (extreme loneliness)
  • Curiosity to Distraction (unfocused, anxious)

When one is beyond frustration, the frustrated emotions become to the point of  hopelessness (towards the Insane State):

  • Pride turns to Contempt
  • Desire turns to Fear
  • Human love turns to Hauteur (repulsiveness)
  • Curiosity turns to Disdain (lack of notice)

In my opinion there are also divine states of emotions:

  • Divine Pride generates more spiritual self,
  • Divine Desire directs to more spiritual goals in the material world
  • Divine human love enhances a spiritual relationship
  • Divine curiosity produces spiritual learning

Earlier Attempts of Mapping the Mind

Many books have been written on how the mind seems to work. Earlier works were very simple approaches to the problem. Hippocrates, for example, classified the mind into the sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic. Sprangers grouped the mind into parts: political, religious, social, economic, aesthetic and theoretic. Jung's classified everyone into introverts, ambiverts and extroverts. McDougall presented fourteen instincts, and phrenological charts. Freud's mind map of ego, id, and super ego were akin to the trinity of the soul, the devil and God. 

Charles Hampden-Turner, in his Maps of the Mind, carriers diagrams for some sixty "mind-maps". Each diagram presented a theme including: history, religion, physiology, cybernetics, psychobiology, paradogmatic and myth.  This book has some historical value, but there is no attempt to provide a cohesive theory of how the mind works.

Modern Brain/Mind Maps

Base somewhat on Shirely's map of the mind, I have developed my own brain/mind map.  It is too large to fit in a web page, so I made it into a PDF file.   Below is a simplified table that contains the highlights of the PDF file.  

  A B C
1 Input

Sensory Input
Sight, Sound, Touch, Smell, Orientation, Balance, Pressure

   
2 Memory

Perception/Sensory Memory
Outer World Simulator

Cognition/Working Memory
Current perception, thoughts
Memory chunking
Long Term Memory
Explicit Memory
General Knowledge
Episoidc Events
Semantic
3 Emotion Emotional Impulse Generator
Surprise, Shock, Disgust, Rage, Fear
Current Mood

Working Emotions
Unity Pride-Shame-Contempt
Mobility Desire-Anger-Anxiety/Fear
Variety Curiosity-Distraction-Disdain
Sick and Healthy Emotions

Long Term Emotions
Long Term Emotions
Depression
Beliefs and Virtues
Joy, Love, Loyalty, Obedience, Patience
Wisdom

4 Output     Last Decision Gate  and Behavioral Output
5 Needs  

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
-Self Actualization
-Esteem Needs
-Long and Belongingness Needs
-Safety Needs
-Physiological Needs

 
6 Libido   Libido and Other Appetite Drives
Urge for sleep
Sexual desire
Hunger
Awakefulness
Urge for change
 

In this diagram the emotions correspond to the different types of memory.  Inputs from the physical world impact the cognitive and the emotional components.  The output of the brain is controlled by short term, working and long term emotions.  Energy for the emotions are supplied by the libido and the list of needs in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

Emotions are there to give importance to the journey through life.  Strong emotions convey importance. Emotions are generally either positive (e.g., attracting, healthy, learning, a sense of pride) or negative (e.g., disgusting, repelling, sick, embarrassment).

All emotions reference the self.  We feel connected to how we feel and often define ourselves by what we feel

Deepermind Classification of Emotions

Looking at all these ways of emotional classification, I have classified  them into six dimensions.

  1. Self -includes the body (sickness, wellness, hunger, sex) and the ego (pride, identity, personal depth)
  2. Other People -Relationships with others (love, anger,hate, empathy, passive, aggressive, loneness)
  3. Study -Learning / Curiosity (Student study, insight, engineering understandings, joy of knowing, confusion, being lost, bored)
  4. Spiritual Emotions (meditation, prayer, feelings in church, feeling saved, feelings of grace, enlightened)
  5. Time -Past / Future (Worry, prediction, surprise, hope, anxiety, fear of the future, past traumas, courage)
  6. Strength -the power of the emotion (no feelings at all, so-so,  being cool, normal, interesting,  intense, overwhelming, climax)

 

Note that the center is the self.  Other people help define the self.  One then expands their insight through study of what is right and wrong, good and bad which leads to spiritual insight and emotions.  All the emotions are a function of strength and time.  What I mean by time is the past (memory) and the future (plans and worry).   Thus someone could worry a little (strength) about the future (time) about a friend (other people).  

By using strength and time as overall dimensions, one can mix these factors with the other emotions.  Thus anxiety and fear are part of the time dimension as one is concerned about the future.  Time (e.g., anxiety and fear) could effect the self (e.g.,  feeling afraid they will get caught, or fear of another person, or fear of something they read) or spiritual dimension (e.g., going to hell),

The reader might find it interesting to try to fit the words listed below into their own dimensional scheme.


Helpful Word Definitions

  • Impulses originate quickly from our sensations and lead to spontaneous action.
  • Sensations are feelings that originate directly from our perceptions and lead to impulses.
  • Attitudes are the longer term remembered feelings that have been woven into one's personality. Attitudes allow us to weigh alternative actions, then constrain and discipline our conduct.
  • Moods reflect one's emotional energy.
  • Appetites are signals that reflect our needs. There are animal appetites such as hunger, thirst, sex and spiritual appetites such as yearning for truth, inspirational music and closeness to God.
  • Thoughts are the cognitive experience where we compare, infer, evaluate, judge, make decisions and plan.
  • Anxiety is the wavering or frustration of an emotion. It is not well-focused (hypofocus) and may result in causing circular thinking and worry.
  • Attraction is the aggressive high focus (hyperfocus) of an emotion.

The Emotion and Feeling List

With four groups of emotions contain four emotions each, we have a total of sixteen emotions or 256 possible combinations.  Combined with different energy levels and simultaneous emotions, the result is a huge spectrum of emotions. Some of the emotions in the spectrum are listed below. 

  • Admiration Pride/Affection
  • Affection -strong attachment
  • Agitation -strong confused feelings
  • Antagonism Contempt/Anger
  • Apprehension Fear/Distraction
  • Ardor -intensity of passion
  • Belief Affection/Curiosity
  • Consternation Pathos/Distraction
  • Cordiality -warmth of manner
  • Deep sense -strong and intelligent idea
  • Determination Pride/Desire
  • Disappointment Fear/Pathos
  • Disgust Contempt/Hauteur
  • Dread Shame/Fear
  • Eagerness -impatient desire to accomplish
  • Earnestness -deep, resolute desire to accomplish
  • Ecstasy -extreme delight
  • Endurance -power to bear pain
  • Enthusiasm -extraordinary fervor
  • Embarrassment Shame/Pathos
  • Experience -something undergone or enjoyed
  • Fanaticism -extravagant zeal
  • Ferment -intense excitement
  • Fervor -intensity of feeling
  • Flurry -sudden confused state of mind
  • Flush -sudden elation or excitement
  • Fluster -confused state of mind
  • Fullness of the heart -generosity
  • Furore -overmastering passion for
  • Glow -fervency of intensity of felling
  • Gusto -keen enjoyment; relish
  • Heartiness -earnestness and sincerity
  • Hectic -a habitual flush
  • Hope Desire/Affection
  • Indignation Anger/Hauteur
  • Impression -the effect produced on the mind
  • Inspiration -divine influence; elevating influence of genius or occasion
  • Interest Desire/Curiosity
  • Passion -overpowering feeling
  • Pathos -tender or sorrowful feeling
  • Perturbation -agitation of the mind
  • Pother -continued confusion
  • Pulsation -a beating or throbbing of the heart
  • Response -act or feeling as a result of an appeal
  • Ruffle -state of slight vexation
  • Scorn Contempt/Disdain
  • Sensation -an impression made on the mind through the senses
  • Sincerity Pride/Curiosity
  • Shock -starting emotion; violence to the feelings
  • Stew -a state of agitating excitement
  • Sex -body feelings (warm tickles)
  • Sufferance -experience of pain or evil
  • Suffering -severe pain
  • Supportance -assistance to an ill person
  • Suspicion Hauteur/Disdain
  • Sympathy - fellow feeling for one in pain or trouble
  • Thrill -a tremor of feeling or excitement
  • Tolerance -allowing what is not altogether approved
  • Turn -a shock, as from an alarm
  • Unction -that quality in language or address which excites emotions
  • Regret Shame/Distraction
  • Vehemence Anger/Disdain -strength or impetuosity of feeling or passion
  • Verve -the enthusiasm of a poet or artist
  • Warmth -slight passion
  • Zeal -enthusiastic devotion

This list of emotions show how wide emotions can run.  Note that most feelings are shared with animals whereas only the lower (often evil) emotions are shared with animals.  Other more human emotions are enhanced by the virtues we acquire in life.


According to Abraham Hicks our inner being guides us through our emotions.  As you move up the emotional scale (below) you will open passageways to well being that reach far beyond.  We have an emotional set point that defines our highest emotional awareness.  Working near our set point we can only raise up our emotions one level at a time.

The Abraham-Hicks emotional guidance system:

  • Joy/Empowerment/Freedom/Love/Appreciation
  • Passion
  • Enthusiasm/Eagerness/Happiness
  • Positive Expectation/Believe
  • Optimism
  • Hopefulness
  • Contentment
  • Boredom
  • Pessimism
  • Frustration/Impatience
  • Overwhelment
  • Disappointment
  • Doubt
  • Worry
  • Blame
  • Discouragement
  • Anger
  • Revenge
  • Hatred/Rage
  • Jealousy
  • Insecurity/Guilt/Unworthiness
  • Fear/Grief/Depression/Despair/ Powerlessness

The Random House Unabridged Dictionary defines feelings as:

1. The function or the power of perceiving by touch.
2. Physical sensation not connected with sight, hearing, taste, or smell.
3. A particular sensation of this kind: a feeling of warmth; a feeling of pain.
4. The general state of consciousness considered independently of particular sensations, thoughts, etc.
5. A consciousness or vague awareness: a feeling of inferiority.
6. An emotion or emotional perception or attitude: a feeling of joy; a feeling of sorrow.
7. Capacity for emotion, esp. compassion: to have great feeling for the sufferings of others.
8. A sentiment; attitude; opinion: The general feeling was in favor of the proposal.
9. Feelings, sensibilities; susceptibilities: to hurt one's feelings.
10. Fine emotional endowment.
11. In music and art, an emotion or sympathetic perception revealed by an artist in his or her work: a poem without feeling.
12. The general impression conveyed by a work: a landscape painting with a spacious feeling.
13. Sympathetic appreciation, as of music: to play with feeling.

 

The Random House Unabridged Dictionary defines emotions as:

1. An affective state of consciousness in which joy, sorrow, fear, hate, or the like, is experienced, as distinguished from cognitive and volitional states of consciousness.
2. Any of the feelings of joy, sorrow, fear, hate, love, etc.
3. Any strong agitation of the feelings actuated by experiencing love, hate, fear, etc., and usually accompanied by certain physiological changes,as increased heartbeat or respiration, and often overt manifestation, as crying or shaking.
4. An instance of this.
5. Something that causes such a reaction: the powerful emotion of a great symphony.


Emotions and the Little Green Man

In order to continue consider the little green man problem.   The image at the back of the eye's retina is somehow passed to the consciousness mind via a viewing screen as of the "entertainment center" in the brain that we see as the real outer world.  It is only a picture of the outer world, much like a television set is a picture of what is picked up on a television camera.

Who is watching the this screen?  It is the little green man inside us.  The little green man is where the buck stops, it is the experiencer of life, that which is truly us.  The only problem with this little green man theory is that for the little green man to see it takes another entertainment center and another little green man to watch it.

This little green man has another green man inside it too and this continues to infinity.

The best way around this problem is to postulate another dimension where consciousness exists, where there is only one green man who knows that he knows.   You might think of it as a cloud of beingness, a spirit, an essence, and the true person behind all the body functions.

If we are a little green men in another dimension, then what about emotions.   Could they be like physical objects in a higher dimension?  Do we sense God as a feeling on this plane?  

 

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Copyright 1997 -2007 George Norwood
Version 12.0  March 26, 2011